August 4, 2017

Historical Resources

A self-proclaimed history enthusiast, Spielberg has brought attention to some of the most significant moments in world history through his films. Here, you can find out more about the events he’s depicted.

World War II

Featured in Jaws, 1941, the Indiana Jones series, Empire of the Sun, Schindler’s List and Saving Private Ryan
Running from 1939 to 1945, the Second World War was a global conflict waged in order to stamp out the rise of Fascism in Germany, Italy and Japan. Find out more about the Second World War at the links below:

Imperial War Museum | World War II Foundation | BBC History: World War II | Assemblies to remember World War II | The Steps That Led to D-Day | How to teach D-Day | National D-Day Memorial | National World War II Museum | The War (PBS/Ken Burns documentary | The World At War (Thames Television documentary) | Five Came Back (Netflix documentary) | The Nazis: A Warning from History (BBC documentary) |

The Holocaust

Featured in Schindler’s List
Between 1941 and 1945, around six million Jaws were killed by Nazi forces in Germany. Though the term can be used to describe non-Jewish victims, the campaign of extermination was launched specifically to provide a so-called ‘Final Solution to the Jewish Question’. Find out more about the Holocaust at the links below:

Holocaust Memorial Day and Holocaust Memorial Day Trust | Holocaust Educational Trust | UN Holocaust Program | USC Shoah Foundation | Auschwitz: The Past is Present | United States Holocaust Memorial Museum | The National Holocaust Centre and Museum | UCL Centre for Holocaust Education | Shoah (Lanzmann, 1985) | Night and Fog (Resnais, 1956) | Maus (Art Spiegelman) | Auschwitz: The Nazis and the ‘Final Solution’ (BBC TV documentary) | The Nazis: A Warning from History (BBC TV documentary) |

The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the United States

Featured in Amistad and Lincoln
For 245 years, it was legal to keep slaves in the United States. Beginning in the early 17th Century, slavery was abolished by the passage of the 13th Amendment by President Abraham Lincoln in 1865. Find out more about slavery in the United States at the links below:

A History of Slavery in the United States (National Geographic) | These Maps Reveal How Slavery Expanded Across the United States | Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History | Lest We Forget Museum of Slavery | National Underground Railroad Freedom Center | National Museum of African American History and Culture | Slavery in America – The National Museum of American History | Slavery and the Making of America – PBS educational resources | International Slavery MuseumHow to Teach… Slavery (Guardian Education) | A Biography of America – teaching resource | Slave and Free Soil – Interactive Map (PBS) |

President Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War

Featured in Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States of America, serving from March 1861 until he was assassinated in April 1865. He is most well-known for passing the 13th Amendment, which ended slavery in the US. Find out more about Lincoln at the links below:

Abraham Lincoln Presidental Library and Museum | Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library Foundation | Abraham Lincoln: An Extraordinary Life (National Museum of American History) | Abraham Lincoln – Life Before the Presidency (Miller Center) | Abraham Lincoln Online | Lincoln Bicentennial | Civil War Trust | The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History – The American Civil War | Ken Burns’ The Civil War (PBS) | The American Civil War Museum |

World War One

Featured in War Horse
Running from 1914 to 1918, the First World War was a global conflict fought between the Allies (Russia, rance and the United Kingdom) and the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary). Find out more about World War One at the links below:

World War One: The global conflict that defined a century | World War One – The British Library | World War One: how the events of August 4 1914 unfolded | Never before seen photographs from World War One frontline | The Royal British Legion | The Art of World War One in 52 PaintingsImperial War Museum | Schools – World War One (BBC) | Letters from the First World War, 1915 (National Archives) | Remember the World as well as the War |

The Cold War

Featured in Bridge of Spies
Between 1947 and 1991, the United States and Soviet Union were locked in period of tension that never boiled over into war, but left the world teetering on the edge of destruction. Find out more about the Cold War at the links below:

The Cold War (BBC History) | The Cold War – John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum | National Cold War Exhibition – Royal Air Force Museum | The Cold War – Imperial War Museum | The Cold War – A Pop Culture Timeline | Winston Churchill and the Cold War | The Berlin Wall – BBC History | Berlin Wall Memorial | A look back – The Cold War: Strangers on a Bridge | Rudolf Abel: The Soviet spy who grew up in England | James B. Donovan (Official Website) | Strangers on a Bridge (James B. Donovan) | Bridge of Spies (Giles Whittell) |

The 1972 Munich Olympics Terrorist Attack 

Featured in Munich
During the second week of the 1972 Summer Olympic Games in Munich, eleven Israeli athletes were killed by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September. Israel responded with Operation Wrath of God, a retaliation campaign led by Israel’s national intelligence agency, Mossad. Find out more about the Munich Olympics attack at the links below:

The Story Behind the Masked Horror of the Munich Olympics | Munich ’72 and Beyond (PBS documentary) | Black September, Munich 1972 | The Munich massacre: A survivor’s story | One Day in September | Terror at the Olympics: Munich, 1972 | September 6, 1972: World learns of Munich Olympics massacre |

Vietnam and The Pentagon Papers

Featured in The Post
The Pentagon Papers were a set of confidential documents outlining the true nature of America’s involvement in Vietnam during the 60s and 70s. Successive presidents knew that the war effort was futile, but persisted despite significant loss of life in order to save face. The New York Times and Washington Post faced significant legal backlash when they tried to publish the papers, but did so anyway in a significant victory for the freedom of the press against the power of the presidency. Find out more about the Pentagon Papers at the links below:

Behind the Race to Publish the Top-Secret Pentagon Papers | What are the Pentagon Papers?The true story of The Post: how the Pentagon Papers exposed America’s role in VietnamDaniel Ellsberg Explains Why He Leaked The Pentagon Papers40 Years After Leak, Weighing the Impact of the Pentagon PapersThe Untold Story of the Pentagon Papers Co-Conspirators | The Vietnam War (PBS Documentary) | ‘Who is the enemy here? The Vietnam War Pictures That Moved Them Most | Ken Burns: How Vietnam War sowed the seeds of a divided America |